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Origen in the "Philosophumena" (VIII, xviii) seems to regard them as a mere handful of wrong-headed nonconformists. Granted that the great Easter festival was always to be held on a Sunday, and was not to coincide with a particular phase of the moon, which might occur on any day of the week, a new dispute arose as to the determination of the Sunday itself. for we have received from our Saviour a different way. 58-59) we learn that the dispute now lay between the Christians of Syria and Mesopotamia and the rest of the world.The second stage in the Easter controversy centres round the Council of Nicaea (A. The text of the decree of the Council of Nicaea which settled, or at least indicated a final settlement of, the difficulty has not been preserved to us, but we have an important document inserted in Eusebius's "Life of Constantine" (III, xviii sq.). And first of all it appeared an unworthy thing that in the celebration of the Jews, who have impiously defiled their hands with enormous sin. The important Church of Antioch was still dependent upon the Jewish calendar for its Easter.In Christian times, the spring began to be associated with Jesus Christ's crucifixion and resurrection.

The Alexandrians, on the other hand, accepted it as a first principle that the Sunday to be kept as Easter Day must necessarily occur after the vernal equinox, then identified with 21 March of the Julian year.

This was the main difficulty which was decided by the Council of Nicaea.

In this way the date of Easter as kept at Alexandria and Antioch did not always agree; for the Jews, upon whom Antioch depended, adopted very arbitrary methods of intercalating embolismic months (see CALENDAR, Bol. 158) before they celebrated Nisan, the first spring month, on the fourteenth day of which the paschal lamb was killed.

In particular we learn that they had become neglectful (or at least the Christians of Rome and Alexandria declared they were neglectful) of the law that the fourteenth of Nisan must never precede the equinox (see Schwartz, Christliche und judische Ostertafeln, pp. Thus Constantine in the letter quoted above protests with horror that the Jews sometimes kept two Paschs in one year, meaning that two Paschs sometimes fell between one equinox and the next.

The idea of the resurrection joined with the ideas of re-birth in Pagan beliefs.