One widely quoted remark of this nature came from Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni who, at the Fifteenth International AIDS Conference in Bangkok in 2004, advocated for HIV prevention based on “optimal relationships based on love and trust instead of institutionalised mistrust, which is what the condom is all about…I think of condoms as an improvisation, not a solution”.
The efficacy of an intervention is how well it works in a scientific trial or when people use it as indicated, i.e.
consistently; its effectiveness is how well it actually works to prevent disease or infection in a given population, given actual levels of use.
Another is that the HIV-positive partner will be chronically infected and so will not have the very high viral load characteristic of acute HIV infection.
Thirdly, in long-term serodiscordant relationships, studies have shown that the HIV-negative partner can acquire a degree of immunity to their partner’s HIV.
The main findings of studies we look at in more detail below are as follows: These degrees of protection may be lower than some readers expect, and rates of 98% reliability are still sometimes quoted for condoms.