There is evidence of funeral rituals taking place toward the end of the Middle Paleolithic period. Neandertals disappeared because they were either killed off by i. Distinctive Features: high, bulging forehead; thin, light bones; small face and jaw; chin; slight brow ridge or none at all. Upper Paleolithic art - Beads and Carvings - Cave paintings: Lascaux, Altamira - Fertility figurines: Venus of Willendorf - Musical Instruments (bone pipes) i. Monte Verde 33kya - Many colonization events occurred and inhabitants of the new world varied in their cultures. Ethnographers are trained to be aware of and record details from daily events, the significance of which may not be apparent until much later. Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942) is generally considered the father of ethnography.
Cro-Magnon Man (1868) - 35kya Evidence collected more recently: 100kya: Klasies River, S. The Last Ice Age (70kya-13kya) or the "Pleistocene Era" - Glaciers covered much of Europe and North America (for example, 97% of Canada was covered by glaciers) - Plants and animals were adapted to extreme conditions (megafauna/flora) - The ice age allowed migration to North and South America ii. He did “salvage ethnography,” recording cultural diversity that was threatened by westernization. Ethnographic realism and Comparing differences (or cultural relativism): The writer’s goal was to produce an accurate, objective, scientific account of the study community.
One way in which cultures and subcultures vary between and within societies is in the form of language they use.
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had the largest brains yet (with neandertal brains being somewhat bigger than today's average human), and continued changes to the skull, skeletal structure and teeth. Remains of early new world hunters have been found in Canada, the United States and Mexico. Culture refers to the values, beliefs, behavior and material objects that together form a people’s way of life. Material culture – tangible, physical cultural artifacts. Non-material culture – intangible, mental cultural meanings. Symbols and Language Ethnographers spend an extended period of time living with the group they are studying.
They lived during the Middle Paleolithic period (300kya-40kya), when the Mousterian tool kit reduced the size and increased the efficiency of tools, and relatively permanent homesites were created. Sapiens (50kya - 10kya) - Burins (refined chisel process) - Pressure Flaking (Blade flake) - Spearthrowers (Atlatl) ii. - Clovis points are found in association with mammoth kills - Clovis sites range from 11.2kya to 10.9kya - Mammoth disappeared 10kya. Early ethnographers conducted research almost exclusively among small-scale, relatively isolated (indiginous) societies. “Participant observation,” as practiced by ethnographers, involves the researcher taking part in the activities being observed.
Expendability - Society can afford to lose more men than women Q: Gender Difference: Nature or Nurture?
Some rare exceptions exist, such as the Greek Amazons .
Species Defined: A population that consists of organisms able to interbreed and produce fertile and viable offspring. , "man with ability" - tool use and culture begin at the same time.