criminology largely abandoned the idea of rehabilitation.This scholarship fueled a wave of reforms that shifted the juvenile justice system away from rehabilitation and toward other goals like deterrence and incapacitation. The 736 pages was the result of a six month effort to comb through every good study they could find about rehabilitation. This was their conclusion: “With few exceptions, the rehabilitative efforts that have been reported so far have no appreciable effect on recidivism.”Robert Martinson (1974) wrote a summary of that book, in which he examined every conceivable program that might help to reduce recidivism.Further, section gave judges the discretionary power to send juveniles into the adult court.
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Our Word of the Year choice serves as a symbol of each year’s most meaningful events and lookup trends.
It is an opportunity for us to reflect on the language and ideas that represented each year.
In 1966, the Governor of New York gave Robert Martinson, Douglas Lipton and Judith Wilkes one huge task: figure out what needs to be done to enable prisons to actually rehabilitate prisoners. The results, as he presented them, were depressing.